Maine Has the Lithium America Needs, But Won’t Allow Mining

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This tale was released in collaboration with The Maine Monitor, a not-for-profit as well as detached wire service. To obtain normal insurance coverage from the Monitor, enroll in a totally free Monitor e-newsletter below.


The globe’s wealthiest recognized lithium down payment exists deep in the timbers of western Maine, in a yawning, shimmering mouth of white as well as brownish rocks that appears like a landslide sculpted right into the side of Plumbago Mountain.

Mary Freeman as well as her hubby Gary discovered the down payment 5 years ago while searching for tourmaline, a striking, multi-colored gems discovered in the area.

The Freemans make their living offering laboratory materials via the Florida-based business they started 40 years earlier, Awareness Technology. But their real love is excavating for gems, which has brought them for many years to Mary’s residence state of Maine, the website of a few of the ideal tourmaline searching in the globe.

Since 2003, they’ve been purchasing up building parcels, researching core examples as well as old geological maps to establish where to attempt excavating following, after that investing thousands of hundreds of bucks a year on blowing up as well as devices. The pair has dug greater than a mile of passages in quest of stunning rocks, as well as much of their finds—like blue elbaite as well as abundant watermelon tourmaline—have actually ended up on screen at the Maine Mineral & Gem Museum in neighboring Bethel.

Now, the Freemans wish to broaden this pit, near the community of Newry, Maine, so they can extract spodumene, crystals which contain the lithium the U.S. needs for the tidy power change. The timing of their exploration, in what has been called Plumbago North, is impressive; the Freemans have actually come across among the just hard-rock resources of lithium in the U.S. each time when the product is frantically required for the tidy power change. By 2040, the globe will certainly require at the very least 1.1 million statistics lots of lithium every year, greater than 10 times what it presently creates, according to estimates by the International Energy Agency. Should the Maine down payment be extracted, maybe worth as long as $1.5 billion, a big windfall for the Freemans as well as a benefit to the Biden Administration’s initiatives to boost even more residential mining, handling, as well as recycling of vital minerals such as lithium, cobalt, as well as unusual planet aspects to lower the U.S.’ dependancy on China. This is among the couple of lithium down payments in the U.S. presently discovered in acid rock, which indicates it is higher-quality as well as quicker to procedure than lithium extracted from salt water.

“I consider myself an environmentalist,” states Mary, that on a current stormy check out to the examination quarry, was using pants, a coat, as well as treking boots, her white hair drew right into a reduced braid. Most of the nation’s vital minerals are extracted somewhere else as well as refined in China, she includes. “I think [the U.S.] should try to be a little bit more self-sufficient.”

Read much more: Lithium Is Key to the Electric Vehicle Transition. It’s Also in Short Supply

But like practically all over in the U.S. where brand-new mines have actually been recommended, there is solid resistance below. Maine has a few of the most strict mining as well as water high quality criteria in the nation, as well as restricts excavating for steels in open pits bigger than 3 acres. There have actually not been any kind of energetic steel mines in the state for years, as well as no business has looked for an authorization because an especially stringent regulation come on 2017. As much more firms start prospecting in Maine as well as looking for large nickel, copper, as well as silver down payments, communities are starting to pass their very own restrictions on commercial mining.

“This is a story that has been played out in Maine for generations,” states Bill Pluecker, a participant of the state’s House of Representatives, whose home town of Warren—a 45-minute drive from the funding city of Augusta—just recently elected extremely for a short-lived restriction on commercial steel mining after a Canadian business came searching for minerals near a precious neighborhood fish pond. “We build industries based on the needs of populations not living here and then the bottom drops out, leaving us struggling again to pick up the pieces.”

A deteriorating tank sits on the site of the Callahan Mine in Brooksville, Maine, on Dec. 21, 2016. The former open pit copper and zinc mine is now a federal Superfund site. Mining companies that once pursued precious metals have abandoned half a million mines across the country and, thanks to decades of lax regulations, left the bill to taxpayers. (Robert F. Bukaty—AP)

A weakening container remains on the website of the Callahan Mine in Brooksville, Maine, on Dec. 21, 2016. The previous open pit copper as well as zinc mine is currently a government Superfund website. Mining firms that as soon as went after rare-earth elements have actually deserted half a million mines throughout the nation as well as, many thanks to years of lax policies, left the costs to taxpayers.

Robert F. Bukaty—AP

Mainers typically conjure up the Callahan Mine in the seaside community of Brooksville as a caution. Tailings from the mine, which ran for numerous years in the late 1960s, were dealt with in a stack beside a salt marsh as well as creek. The previous mine is currently a Superfund website, as well as a 2013 research by scientists at Dartmouth College discovered prevalent proof of hazardous steels in neighboring debris, water as well as fish. Cleanup prices, birthed by taxpayers, are approximated in between $23 million as well as $45 million.

“Our gold rush mentality regarding oil has fueled the climate crisis,” states State Rep. Margaret O’Neil, that provided a costs last session that would certainly have stopped lithium mining for 5 years while the state exercised policies (the regulations inevitably fell short). “As we facilitate our transition away from fossil fuels, we must examine the risks of lithium mining and consider whether the benefits of mining here in Maine justify the harms.”

The Freemans’ explain that they prepare to mine the spodumene, after that deliver it out of state for handling, so there would certainly be no chemical fish ponds or tailings heaps. They compare the excavation of the minerals to quarrying for granite or sedimentary rock, which delights in a long, abundant background in Maine.

Advocates for mining in the U.S. suggest that, because the nation contracts out a lot of its mining to areas with much less stringent ecological as well as labor policies, those injuries are presently being birthed by international citizens, while placing U.S. makers in the ragged edge of relying on distant resources for the minerals they require. Though there are greater than 12,000 energetic mines in the U.S., the mass of them are for rock, coal, sand, as well as crushed rock.

Mary Freeman holds a spodumene crystal, which contains lithium, found in the test pit she and her husband Gary own in Newry, Maine, on June 6. (Garrick Hoffman—The Maine Monitor)

Mary Freeman holds a spodumene crystal, which has lithium, discovered in the examination pit she as well as her hubby Gary very own in Newry, Maine, on June 6.

Garrick Hoffman—The Maine Monitor

There is just one functional lithium mine in the U.S., in Nevada, as well as one functional unusual planet component mine, in Mountain Pass, Calif., indicating that the U.S. depends on various other nations for the products crucial for tidy power modern technologies like batteries, wind generators, as well as photovoltaic panels. Even after they’re extracted, those products presently need to be delivered to China for handling because the U.S. does not have any kind of handling centers.

“If we’re talking about critical metals and materials, we’re so far behind that it’s crazy,” states Corby Anderson, a teacher at the Colorado School of Mines. “It’s the dichotomy of the current administration—they have incentives for electric vehicles and all these things, but they need materials like graphite, manganese, nickel, cobalt, lithium, and copper. The only one we mine and refine in this country is copper.”


The COVID-19 pandemic laid bare the troubles of distant supply chains; as U.S. customers went shopping online in their houses, the products they acquired, primarily from Asia, skilled extensive hold-ups at clogged up ports. What’s much more, polite stress with China determined the U.S. federal government to look for various other possible resources for mining, product handling, as well as recycling.

That’s why, in the pandemic’s consequences, the Biden Administration released an effort to safeguard a Made in America supply chain for vital minerals. It consisted of billions in financing for firms attempting to mine as well as procedure vital minerals locally.

A satellite view of cargo ships waiting to offload at the Ports of Los Angeles on Oct. 10, 2021, during the Covid-19 pandemic. (Gallo Images/Orbital Horizon/Copernicus Sentinel Data/Getty Images)

A satellite sight of freight ships waiting to unload at the Ports of Los Angeles on Oct. 10, 2021, throughout the Covid-19 pandemic.

Gallo Images/Orbital Horizon/Copernicus Sentinel Data/Getty Images

The rocks in Plumbago North would certainly appear to assist give a residential supply chain for vital minerals; they are believed to be amongst the biggest samplings of spodumene ever before discovered, with crystals of such top quality that along with batteries, they can be utilized to make clinical glass wares or computer system displays, where the lithium steel would certainly assist reduced the melting temperature level.

The Freemans are simply 2 of the thousands of individuals prospecting for vital products throughout the nation as the U.S. attempts to enhance the residential supply chain. According to an evaluation by Patrick Donnelly, the Great Basin Director for the Center for Biological Diversity, a not-for-profit ecological company, greater than 100 firms have actually bet cases for lithium down payments in the American West. Companies additionally have actually looked for licenses to mine cobalt in Idaho, nickel as well as copper in Minnesota, as well as lithium in North Carolina.

Geologists claim there’s additionally likely a whole lot much more lithium in spodumene down payments throughout New England. Communities that haven’t had functioning mines in years might quickly discover themselves a crucial resource for lithium as well as various other minerals required for automobile batteries, photovoltaic panels, as well as much of the things individuals will certainly require even more of to change themselves off contaminating nonrenewable fuel sources.


There are great factors for U.S. areas to have healthy and balanced hesitation concerning mining jobs; there is no lack of instances of a firm entering into a neighborhood, mining till doing so comes to be as well costly, after that leaving a contaminated website for another person to tidy up. There are greater than 50,000 deserted mines in the western United States alone, 80% of which still require to be remediated. Passage of site ecological regulations like the Clean Air Act of 1970 as well as the Clean Water Act of 1972 hasn’t made mining risk-free sufficient, conservationists claim.

Former Hualapai tribal leader Carrie Imus holds a sign as demonstrators walk though the desert during a rally against the Hawkstone Mining Big Sandy Lithium Project in Wikieup, Ariz., on Dec. 4, 2021. Demonstrators believe that the mine poses a threat to the water supply during an ongoing severe drought. (Bridget Bennett—Bloomberg/Getty Images)

Former Hualapai tribal leader Carrie Imus holds an indication as demonstrators stroll however the desert throughout a rally versus the Hawkstone Mining Big Sandy Lithium Project in Wikieup, Ariz., on Dec. 4, 2021. Demonstrators think that the my own positions a hazard to the water system throughout a recurring extreme dry spell.

Bridget Bennett—Bloomberg/Getty Images

“All mines pollute in one way or another, and mines are really bad at predicting how much they’re going to pollute,” states Jan Morrill, that researches mining at the ecological team Earthworks, which just recently discovered that 76% of mining firms in the U.S. contaminated groundwater after stating they wouldn’t.

One of the most bothersome components of mines is the tailings, or waste, Morrill states: Companies essence the minerals they require, after that are entrusted to a large heap of rock, fluid, as well as chemicals that they keep in fish ponds or behind dams that in some cases verify unpredictable. These tailings have actually triggered landslides, too much dirt, as well as water contamination; greater than 300 mine trailing dams have actually fallen short worldwide over the last century, according to Christopher Sergeant, a research study researcher at the University of Montana.

It is not unusual for tailings to leakage right into water, as a matter of fact, there is an authorization that my own proprietors can enter instance they discover their estimates were incorrect as well as they require to release right into U.S. waters.

Even “modern mines” that abide by the most current U.S. criteria—which are amongst the most strict in the globe—still contaminate, Earthworks has discovered. Though there are, in theory, non-polluting means to keep mine tailings, doing so is a lot more costly as well as mine drivers have actually mainly not paid to do so, Morrill states. That’s because, states Aimee Boulanger, executive supervisor of the Initiative for Responsible Mining Assurance, “laws and markets have not fully incentivized companies to do that.”

Indeed, the Biden campaign to boost residential mining consists of, for instance, a $700 million financing for Ioneer, a firm preparing a lithium mine on Rhyolite Ridge in Nevada, where ecological teams claim the mine, as recommended, would certainly trigger the termination of a jeopardized types called Tiehm’s buckwheat. The Administration is additionally investing $115 million to assist Talon Nickel develop a battery minerals refining center in North Dakota, but the possible mine they would certainly resource from, in Minnesota, is opposed by Indigenous teams as well as conservationists that fear it can pollute wells in the location.

Lithium evaporation ponds are seen at Albemarle Lithium production facility in Silver Peak, Nev., on Oct. 6, 2022. (Carlos Barria—Reuters)

Lithium dissipation fish ponds are seen at Albemarle Lithium manufacturing center in Silver Peak, Nev., on Oct. 6, 2022.

Carlos Barria—Reuters

Still, the U.S. has an extra extensive regulative setting than lots of various other nations, she states, as well as there are residential mines that also some conservationists sustain, such as the Stillwater Mine in Montana. Community companies there authorized a Good Neighbor Agreement in 2000 with the Sibanye-Stillwater Mining Company permitting the company to essence platinum as well as palladium—while additionally developing clear as well as enforceable water criteria, limitations to decrease neighborhood web traffic, as well as third-party auditors to guarantee the my own sticks to the criteria it laid out. The my own is currently among the leading companies as well as private-sector earnings generators in Montana.

But supporters needed to compel the Agreement; 3 grassroots companies took legal action against to quit the building and construction of the mine, as well as after a year of settlements, the mining business as well as grassroots teams consented to the agreement as opposed to litigating. With assistance from chosen authorities searching for means to extract much more vital minerals in the U.S., firms might not really feel the require to make comparable assurances to the neighborhood area.

Read much more: What Would Happen if South America Formed an OPEC for Lithium

Environmental problems aren’t the just trouble with mining, Morrill states. The background of mining in the U.S. is connected to manifest destiny; Christopher Columbus was searching for gold when he came across North America, and also as Europeans increased right into the continent, they took land from Indigenous individuals to extract for gold, silver, as well as various other steels.

Today, mining in the U.S. typically trespasses on Indigenous land. Under mining regulations in the U.S. that day to 1872, any individual can bet a case on government public lands as well as request licenses to begin mining if they discover “valuable” natural resource there. Most lithium, cobalt, as well as nickel mines are within 35 miles of a Native American booking, Morrill states, mainly due to the fact that in the consequences of the 1849 gold thrill, the U.S. army gotten rid of people to appointments not much from natural resource in the West. In one especially questionable job, the mining business Rio Tinto intends to develop a copper mine on Oak Flat, Ariz., a desert location beside an Apache booking that Indigenous teams have actually utilized for centuries to carry out social events.

Yet is afraid concerning the impacts of environment adjustment are rising the stress on neighborhood areas to leave the method of mines, states Thea Riofrancos, an associate teacher of government at Providence College that researches mining as well as the eco-friendly power change. She as well as various other scholars have actually wondered about whether estimates that the globe will certainly encounter lithium lacks by 2025 are exact; reusing even more batteries as well as transitioning far from personal automobiles to much more mass transit, for instance, can lower our lasting requirement for lithium-ion power storage space.

“We should think about what is driving this demand, why does this rush feel so intensive, why is there not a version where we are going to try and do this transition with the least amount of mining possible?” Riofrancos states.

Most conservationists concur that the 1872 mining regulation needs to be upgraded as well as there are numerous expenses in Congress that would certainly do so. The Clean Energy Minerals Reform Act of 2023, for instance, presented by Sen. Martin Heinrich (D-NM) in May, would certainly call for even more tribal examination as well as alter exactly how mining is authorized on government lands.

Finding a method to mine in the U.S. can assist deal with an ethical plight, that we eat these products but ask various other nations to birth the force of their removal, states Boulanger, with IRMA.

“There’s an argument to be made that if we’re going to use these materials, and we live in the most consumptive country in the world, we shouldn’t be making other countries be the bank account of our natural resources,” she states.

The Albermarle facility in Kings Mountain, N.C., on Aug. 10, 2022. Albemarle Corp. wants to restart a lithium mine as the building block of the first complete EV battery supply chain in the U.S. (Logan Cyrus—Bloomberg/Getty Images)

The Albermarle center in Kings Mountain, N.C., on Aug. 10, 2022. Albemarle Corp. intends to reactivate a lithium mine as the foundation of the initial full EV battery supply chain in the U.S.

Logan Cyrus—Bloomberg/Getty Images

If legislators as well as regulatory authorities can’t settle on exactly how to extract on U.S. dirt, it can leave the U.S. at risk to basically outsourcing its mining troubles to less-regulated nations. For instance, last October, the Department of Energy utilized the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law to offer a $141.7 million give to Piedmont Lithium, which is constructing a plant in Tennessee to broaden U.S. supply of lithium hydroxide, utilized in long-range batteries for electrical automobiles. In March, Blue Orca Capital, a hedge fund, claimed it was “shorting,” or wagering versus the supply of Piedmont Lithium, declaring that the spodumene the company intends to fine-tune right into lithium at its Tennessee center was assured by allurements to the boy of a top-level political leader in Ghana—“because of corruption,” those resources are most likely to never ever involve fulfillment, the hedge fund states. Piedmont refutes the accusations as well as states in a declaration offered to TIME that the Minerals Income Investment Fund of Ghana informed the business that it has legitimate licenses as well as allows for all its existing tasks.


Most of the recommended vital products mines in the U.S. are not near a huge populace facility—or financial task, as well as some areas favor a mine for the tasks it would certainly produce. But the recommended areas can rather bring about scenarios where sparsely inhabited areas don’t find out about a prepared mine till it’s far too late to quit it. “It can feel really fast—all of a sudden an enormous project is being proposed next door to you, it took years for the company to prospect but you didn’t hear about it ‘til now,” states Riofrancos.

The Freemans’ my own is not one of these jobs. Though it is 5 miles from the closest community, Maine is undergoing a considerable testimonial procedure to choose whether to allow the pair maintain excavating. Earlier in 2023, there were 7 expenses in the legislature concerning the possibility of mining lithium in Maine. Lawmakers inevitably decided on regulations that might open up the door to drawing out the Freemans’ lithium by permitting bigger open pit steel mines, as long as programmers can verify they won’t contaminate groundwater as well as the neighborhood setting. But the brand-new regulation will certainly call for altering the state’s mining policies, which might indicate maybe years prior to the pair has the ability to begin excavating in earnest.

The Freemans claim their my own would certainly not contaminate the surrounding land as well as water, as the chemical structure of the crystals as well as the rocks around them is such that they would certainly not liquify right into harmful acid when subjected to air as well as water. Geologists that TIME/Maine Monitor talked with concur with that analysis. Further, the crystals, states Mary, would certainly be shipped of state in huge pieces for handling, so there would certainly be no chemical fish ponds or tailings.

Many rock hounds concur that the Freemans’ proposition would certainly not be as turbulent as various other recommended mines throughout the nation. Other steels (like nickel, silver, as well as zinc) normally take place in bands of rock deep listed below the surface area which contain iron sulfides, which produce sulfuric acid when subjected to air as well as water, contaminating rivers for years, a sensation referred to as acid mine drain. Some spodumene crystals at Plumbago North, by comparison, have actually been normally subjected to air as well as water for thousands of numerous years as well as not damaged down.

On a check out to the examination quarry this springtime, Gary Freeman explained one huge item of spodumene existing at the base of a neighboring creek, the water over it hurrying quick as well as clear, not the corroded orange of an acid-contaminated stream. (The river is recognized, fittingly, as Spodumene Brook.) “The water is so good Poland Spring wants to bottle it and sell it,” states Mary.

Still, Morrill, of Earthworks, states there’s simply insufficient research study concerning the impacts of acid rock spodumene mining to claim without a doubt that the my own wouldn’t damage the setting. Since a lot of individuals in Maine rely on leisure as well as tourist for their source of incomes, she states, it makes the the majority of feeling to maintain safety policies in position.

Maine’s Department of Environmental Protection has denied the Freemans’ demand to think about the land a quarry, as well as is rather identifying spodumene as a metal mineral. As the regulation stands, the Freemans will certainly need to request licenses under Maine’s 2017 Metallic Mineral Mining Act, an expensive procedure (the application handling cost alone is $500,000) that would certainly take years.

Meanwhile, the neighborhood area is split. After all, in Maine it’s uncomplicated to discover individuals still dealing with the lasting damages of older mines. On the various other hand, lots of Mainers are practical as well as recognize the state has long, dark winter seasons, as well as will certainly require battery storage space for any kind of renewable resource it creates on warm or gusty days. The option is to proceed depending on nonrenewable fuel sources, which would certainly aggravate environment adjustment.

Read much more: Tesla Co-Founder JB Straubel Has a Fix for the Battery Problem

Myles Felch, manager at the Maine Mineral as well as Gem Museum, is among these sensible Mainers. He was increased in Union, where a groundswell of resistance has developed to withstand a proposition by Canada-based Exiro Minerals to try to find nickel near a precious neighborhood fish pond. Felch isn’t delighted with the possibility, but additionally recognizes we can’t remain to be so removed from the minerals we make use of in our life.

“I love the place where I grew up and I wouldn’t want anything to ever happen to it,” states Felch. But “you need mineral resources. Most people were probably texting ‘stop the mine’ with a nickel cobalt battery in their phones.”

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